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Roman dating kalends

, from the original Roman practice of proclaiming the first days of the lunar month upon seeing the first signs of a new crescent moon and rendered plural by the Latin treatment of most recurring calendrical days.

There were 51 previously unallocated winter days, to which were added the six days from the reductions in the days in the months, making a total of 57 days.

December 30th may appear as the "third calends of January" or the "third of the calends of January".

Thus, the "second calends" (pridie kalendas) of a month is the last day of the month before it; the "third calends" (tertia kalendas) is the day before that; and so on.

This follows naturally from the fact that the days after the Ides of February (in an ordinary year) or the Ides of Intercalaris (in an intercalary year) both counted down to the Kalends of March. In detail, the system worked as follows: Months were grouped in days such that the Kalends was the first day of the month, the Ides was the 13th day of short months, or the 15th day of long months, and the Nones was the 9th day (counted inclusively) before the Ides (i.e., the fifth or seventh day of the month).